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most important literature

Nov 14,  · The World Economic Forum is an independent international organization committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. Incorporated as a not-for-profit foundation in , and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Forum is tied to no political, partisan or national interests. The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science and Chinese history. Note that, except for the books of poems and songs, most of this literature is philosophical and didactic; there is little in the way of hotkuisssa.cffied Chinese: 中国文学. Literature can play an important role in learning and developing critical life skills. Many educational institutions have adapted their curricula over time to promote students' business and technical skills rather than educating them in the humanities. But the study of literature, which involves reading, writing, thinking and discussion.

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The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, most important literature, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang dynasty — and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng — during the Song dynasty — rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China.

In more modern times, the author Lu Xun — is considered the founder of baihua literature in China. Formation of the earliest layer of Chinese literature was influenced by oral traditions of different social and professional provenance: cult and lay musical practices Shijing[1] divination Yi jingastronomy, exorcism.

The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianismof Daoismof Mohismof Legalismas well as works of military science and Chinese history. Note that, except for the books most important literature poems and songs, most most important literature this literature is philosophical and didactic; there is little in the way of fiction.

However, these texts maintained their significance through both their ideas and their prose style. The Confucian works in particular have been of key importance to Chinese culture and history, as a set of works known as the Four Books and Five Classics were, in the 12th century AD, chosen as the basis for the Imperial examination for any government post, most important literature.

These nine books therefore became the center of the educational system. They have been grouped into two categories: the Five Classicsallegedly commented and edited by Confuciusand the Four Books.

The Five Classics are:. Other important [ according to whom? Among the classics of military science, The Art of War by Sun Tzu 6th century BC was perhaps the first to outline guidelines for effective international diplomacy. The earliest known narrative history of China was the Zuo Zhuanwhich was compiled no later than BC, and attributed to the blind 5th-century BC historian Zuo Qiuming. The Book of Documents is thought to have been compiled as far back as the 6th century BC, and was certainly compiled by the 4th century BC, the latest date for the writing of the Guodian Chu Slips unearthed in a Hubei tomb in The Book of Documents included early information on geography in the Yu Gong chapter.

Another early text was the political strategy book of the Zhan Guo Cecompiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, with partial amounts of the text found amongst the 2nd century BC tomb site at Mawangdui. The oldest extant dictionary in China is the Eryadated to the 3rd century BC, anonymously written but with later commentary by the historian Guo Pu — One of the largest was the Kangxi Dictionary compiled by under the auspices of the Kangxi Most important literature r.

Although court records and other independent records existed beforehand, the definitive work in early Chinese historical writing was the Shijior Records of the Grand Historian written by Han Dynasty court historian Sima Qian BC — 90 BC. This groundbreaking text laid the foundation for Chinese historiography and the many official Chinese historical texts compiled for each dynasty thereafter.

Sima Qian is often compared to the Greek Herodotus in scope and method, because he covered Chinese history from the mythical Xia Dynasty until the contemporary reign of Emperor Wu of Han while retaining an objective and non-biased standpoint. This was often difficult for the official dynastic historians, who used historical works to justify the reign of the current dynasty.

He influenced the written works of many Chinese historians, including the works of Ban Gu and Ban Zhao in the 1st and 2nd centuries, most important literature, and even Sima Guang 's 11th-century compilation of the Zizhi Tongjianpresented to Emperor Shenzong of Song in AD. The overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Historiescreated for each successive Chinese dynasty up until the Ming Dynasty — ; China's last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty —is not included.

Large encyclopedias were also produced in China through the ages. Although these Song Most important literature Chinese encyclopedias featured millions of written Chinese characters each, their aggregate size paled in comparison to the later Yongle Encyclopedia of the Ming Dynasty, which contained a total of 50 million Chinese characters. Other great encyclopedic writers include the polymath scientist Shen Kuo — and his Dream Pool Essaysthe agronomist and inventor Wang Zhen fl.

The rich tradition of Chinese poetry began with two influential collections. In northern China, the Shijing or Classic of Poetry approx. Confucius is traditionally credited with editing the Shijing.

Its stately verses are usually composed of couplets with lines of four characters each or four syllables, as Chinese characters are monosyllabicand a formal structure of end rhymes. Many of these early poems establish the later tradition of starting with a description of nature that leads into emotionally expressive statements, known as bixingor sometime bixing. Both the Shijing and the Chuci have remained influential throughout Chinese history, most important literature.

During the greater part of China's first great period of unification, begun with the short-lived Qin Dynasty BC — BC and followed by the centuries-long Han Dynasty BC — ADthe shi form of poetry underwent little innovation. But a distinctively descriptive and erudite fu form not the same fu character as that used for the bureau of music developed that has been called "rhyme-prose," a uniquely Han offshoot of Chinese poetry's tradition. The end of the Han witnesses a resurgence of the shi poetry, with the anonymous 19 Old Poems.

This collection reflects the emergence of a distinctive five-character line that later became shi poetry's most common line length. Taoist philosophy became a different, common theme for most important literature poets, and a genre emphasizing true feeling emerged led by Ruan Ji — Reunified China's Tang Dynasty — high culture set a high point for many things, most important literature, including poetry.

Various schools of Buddhism a religion from India flourished as represented by the Chan or Zen beliefs of Wang Wei — The distinctively different ci poetry form began its development during the Tang as Central Asian and other musical influences flowed through its cosmopolitan society. China's Song Dynasty —another reunification era after a brief period of disunity, initiated a fresh high culture. Several of its greatest poets were capable government officials as well including Ouyang Xiu —Su Shi —and Wang Anshi — The ci form flourished as a few hundred songs became standard templates for poems with distinctive and variously set meters.

Classical Chinese poetry composition became a conventional skill of the well-educated throughout the Ming — and Qing — dynasties. Over a million poems have been preserved, including those by women, such as Dong Xiaowan and Liu Rushiand by many other diverse voices. Early Chinese prose was deeply influenced by the great philosophical writings of the Hundred Schools of Thought — BC, most important literature. Mo Zi's polemic prose was built on solid and effective methodological reasoning.

Mencius contributed elegant diction and, like Zhuang Zi, relied on comparisons, anecdotes, and allegories. By the 3rd century BC, these writers had developed a simple, concise and economical prose style that served as a model of literary form for over 2, years, most important literature.

They were written in Classical Chinesethe language spoken during the Spring and Autumn period. During the Tang periodthe ornate, artificial style of prose developed in previous periods was replaced by a simple, direct, most important literature, and forceful prose based on examples from the Hundred Schools see above and from the Han periodthe period in which the great historical works of Sima Tan and Sima Qian were published.

This neoclassical style dominated prose writing for the next years. The Song Dynasty saw the rise in popularity of "travel record literature" youji wenxue.

Travel literature combined both diary and narrative prose formats, it was practiced by such seasoned travelers as Fan Chengda — and Xu Xiake — and can be seen in the example of Su Shi 's Record of Stone Bell Mountain. After the 14th century, vernacular fiction became popular, at least outside of court circles, most important literature. Vernacular fiction covered a broader range of subject matter and was longer and more loosely structured than literary fiction.

Chinese fiction was most important literature in the official histories most important literature such less formal works as A New Account of the Tales of the World and Investigations of the Supernatural 4th and 5th century ; Finest Flowers from the World of Letters a 10th-century compilation of works from earlier centuries ; Great Tang Record of the Western Regions completed by the pilgrim to India, Xuanzang in ; Variety Dishes from Youyangthe best known collection of Classical Chinese chuanqi Marvelous Tales from the Tang dynasty; and the Taiping Guangjimost important literature, which preserved the corpus of these Tang dynasty tales.

There was a range of less formal works either oral or using oral conventions, such as the bianwen Buddhist talepinghua plain taleand huaben novellawhich formed background to the novel as early as the Song Dynasty. The novel as an extended prose narrative which realistically creates a believable world of its own evolved in China and in Europe from the 14th—18th centuries, though a little earlier in China, most important literature. Chinese audiences were more interested in history and Chinese authors generally did not present their works as fictional.

Readers appreciated relative optimism, moral humanism, relative emphasis on group behavior, and welfare of the society. With the rise of monetary economy and urbanization beginning in the Song Dynasty, there was a growing professionalization of entertainment fostered by the spread of printing, most important literature, the rise of literacy and education.

In both China and Europe, the novel gradually became more autobiographical and serious in exploration of social, moral, and philosophical problems. Chinese fiction of the late Ming dynasty and early Qing dynasty was varied, self-conscious, most important literature, and experimental.

In China, however, there was no counterpart to the 19th-century European explosion of revolution and romanticism. Scholars now tend to agree that modern Chinese literature did not erupt suddenly in the New Culture Movement — Instead, they trace its origins back at least to the late Qing period — The late Qing was a period of intellectual ferment sparked by a sense of national crisis.

Intellectuals began to seek solutions to China's problems outside of most important literature own tradition. They translated works of Western expository writing and literature, which enthralled readers with new ideas and opened up windows onto new exotic cultures. In this most important literature, a boom in the writing of fiction occurred, most important literature, especially after the abolition of the civil service examination when literati struggled to fill new social and cultural roles for themselves.

Stylistically, this fiction shows signs of both the Chinese novelistic tradition and Most important literature narrative modes. In subject matter, most important literature, it is strikingly concerned with the contemporary: social problems, most important literature, historical upheaval, changing ethical values, etc.

In this sense, late Qing fiction is modern. These poets would become the objects of scorn by New Culturalists like Hu Shihwho saw their work as overly allusive, artificial, and divorced from contemporary reality. Peking opera and "reformed Peking opera" were also popular at the time. The literary scene in the first few years before the collapse of the Qing in was dominated by popular love stories, some written in the classical language and some in the vernacular.

This entertainment fiction would later most important literature labeled " Mandarin Ducks and Butterflies " fiction by New Culturalists, who despised its lack of social engagement. Throughout most important literature of the Republican era, Butterfly fiction would reach many more readers than its "progressive" counterpart. In the course of the New Culture Movement —23the vernacular language largely displaced the classical in all areas of literature and writing.

Literary reformers Hu Shih — and Chen Duxiu — declared the classical language "dead" and promoted the vibrant vernacular in its stead. Hu Shih once said, "A dead language can never produce a living literature. Another female writer who, in the words of scholar Nicole Huang, "persistently experimented with new literary language" is Eileen Chang. Though often said to be less successful than their counterparts in fiction writing, poets also experimented with the vernacular in new poetic forms, such as free verse most important literature the sonnet.

Given that there was no tradition of writing poetry in the vernacular, these experiments were more radical than those in fiction writing and also less easily accepted by the reading public. Other poets, even those among the May Fourth radicals e. May Fourth radicalism, combined with changes in the education system, made possible the emergence of a large group of women writers. While there had been women writers in the late imperial period and the late Qing, they had been few in number, most important literature.

These writers generally tackled domestic issues, such as relations between the sexes, family, friendship and war, Eileen Chang's writing uses the spatial specificities of the modern apartment as essential to the construction of a vision of life in wartime. Ding Ling 's story Miss Sophia's Most important literature exposes the thoughts and feelings of its female diarist in all their complexity. The s and s saw the emergence most important literature spoken drama.

In the late s and s, literary journals and societies espousing various artistic theories proliferated. Among the major writers of the period were Guo Moruo —a poet, historian, essayist, and critic; Mao Dun —the first of the novelists to emerge from the League of Left-Wing Writers and one whose work reflected the revolutionary struggle and disillusionment of the late s; satirist and novelist Lao She — ; and Ba Jin —a novelist whose work was influenced by Ivan Turgenev and other Russian writers.

In the s Ba Jin produced a trilogy that depicted the struggle of modern youth against the ageold dominance of the Confucian family system. Comparison often is made between Jia Familyone of the novels in the trilogy, most important literature, and Dream of the Red Chamber. Many of most important literature writers became important as administrators of artistic and literary policy after Most of those authors who were still alive during the Cultural Revolution —76 were most important literature purged or forced to submit to public humiliation.


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most important literature


Nov 14,  · The World Economic Forum is an independent international organization committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. Incorporated as a not-for-profit foundation in , and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Forum is tied to no political, partisan or national interests. The Most Influential Books Ever Written: The History of Thought from Ancient Times to Today () is a book of intellectual history written by Martin Seymour-Smith, a British poet, critic, and biographer. The National Book Awards are among the most eminent literary prizes in the United States. Started in , the awards are presented annually to American authors for literature published in the prior year, as well as lifetime achievement awards including the "Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters" and the "Literarian Award".