Water pollution: An introduction to causes, effects, solutions

 

water pollution article

Aug 06,  · The primary NIH organization for research on Water Pollution is the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and other federal government agencies. Mar 16,  · Water pollution can come from a variety of sources. Pollution can enter water directly, through both legal and illegal discharges from factories, for example, or imperfect water treatment plants. Persuasive articles on water pollution can go a long way in changing the way that the general public perceives water pollution and help to enact better laws by changing public opinions. In addition, there are many articles on water pollution that highlight the specific damage that is done by a .


Water pollution facts and information


Water pollution is the contamination of water bodiesusually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakesriversoceansaquifers water pollution article groundwater. Water pollution water pollution article when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream.

They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e. Water pollution can be grouped into surface water pollution.

Marine pollution and nutrient pollution are subsets of water pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources and non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause of the pollution, such as a storm drainwastewater treatment plant or stream. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted. The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of.

The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Elevated temperatures can also lead to polluted water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.

Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, water pollution article can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversityand foster invasion by new thermophilic water pollution article. Water pollution is measured by analysing water samples.

Physical, chemical and biological tests can be done. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants, water pollution article. Sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from untreated wastewater.

Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control from construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Nature-based solutions are another approach to prevent water pollution.

In the United States, best management practices for water pollution include approaches to reduce the quantity of water and improve water quality. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants. Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking wateror undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoesalgae bloomsstorms, water pollution article, and water pollution article also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Water pollution is a major global problem. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels international down to individual aquifers and water pollution article. It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases. The organization Global Oceanic Environmental Survey GOES consider water pollution as one of the main environmental problems that can present a danger for the existence of life on earth in the next decades.

The organization proposes a number of measures for fixing the situation, but they should be taken in the next 10 years for being effective. India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated people in India die of water pollution related illness including waterborne diseases every day.

In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countriesdeveloped countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. For example, water pollution article, in a report on water quality in the United Water pollution article in44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. Surface water water pollution article includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans.

A subset of surface water pollution is marine pollution. One common path of entry by contaminants to the sea are rivers, water pollution article. An example is directly discharging sewage and industrial waste into the ocean. Pollution such as this occurs particularly in developing nations. In fact, water pollution article, the 10 largest emitters of oceanic plastic pollution worldwide are, from the most to the least, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, water pollution article, Nigeria, and Bangladesh, [17] largely through the rivers Yangtze, Indus, Yellow, Hai, Nile, Ganges, Pearl, Amur, Niger, and the Mekong, and accounting for "90 percent of all the plastic that reaches the world's oceans.

Large gyres vortexes in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from water pollution article original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt -bearing surface runoffwhich can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.

Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also referred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily classified as surface water pollution.

The distinction of point vs. Analysis of groundwater contamination may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeologyhydrologyand the nature of the contaminants. Causes of groundwater pollution include: naturally-occurring geogenicon-site sanitation systems, sewagewater pollution article, fertilizers and pesticidecommercial and industrial leaks, hydraulic fracturinglandfill leachate. Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources even though they are interrelated.

Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch.

Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment planta factory, water pollution article, or a city storm drain, water pollution article. The U. Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area.

A common example is the water pollution article out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural water pollution article. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lotsroads and highways, called urban runoffis sometimes included under the category of non-point sources. This runoff becomes a point source because it is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local water pollution article waters.

The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicalspathogensand physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While water pollution article of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring calciumsodiumiron, manganeseetc.

High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna, water pollution article. Oxygen -depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter e. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity cloudiness which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species.

Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity change in pHelectrical conductivitytemperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia oxygen depletion and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.

Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Other microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface waters that have caused human health problems include:. High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems septic tankspit latrines or inadequately treated sewage discharges. Some cities also have combined sewerswhich may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms.

Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, water pollution article, results in a change in the physical properties of water.

Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ water pollution article, without sampling, such as temperature.

Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facilitate the comparability of results from disparate testing events.

Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events water pollution article sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events.

For this reason "grab" samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals. Sampling for biological testing involves collection of plants and animals from the surface water body.

Depending on the water pollution article of assessment, the organisms may be identified for water pollution article population counts and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected for bioassays to determine toxicity.

Common physical tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations e. Water samples may be examined using the principles of analytical chemistry. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used methods include pHbiochemical oxygen demand BOD[36] : chemical oxygen demand COD[36] : nutrients nitrate and phosphorus compoundsmetals including copper, zinccadmiumlead and mercuryoil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons TPHand pesticides.

Biological water pollution article involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status water pollution article reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present.

Such organisms can be monitored for changes biochemical, water pollution article, physiological, or behavioral that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.

 

Water pollution

 

water pollution article

 

Mar 16,  · Water pollution can come from a variety of sources. Pollution can enter water directly, through both legal and illegal discharges from factories, for example, or imperfect water treatment plants. Jun 03,  · Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, storms. Persuasive articles on water pollution can go a long way in changing the way that the general public perceives water pollution and help to enact better laws by changing public opinions. In addition, there are many articles on water pollution that highlight the specific damage that is done by a .